C. Murray Woodside and Cheryl Schramm, "Complex performance measurement with NICE (Notation for Interval Combinations and Events)" Software - Practice and Experience, 1994, Vol. 24, No. 12, pp. 1121-1144.

Processes that are going on in a parallel computer system can be decomposed into elementary events. Each of these events can be described by a time interval during which it occurs. To get a better description, however, it is important to describe not only the two endpoints of this interval, but also to describe what was going on during this event. In the paper under review, the authors consider such complex intervals (intervals with descriptions). They design an automated system that evaluates different performance characteristics of the parallel system based on the system's log: namely, the system extracts complex intervals from the log by matching both durations and contents, and analyzes the resulting complex intervals.