Using Prosodic Clues to Decide When to Produce Back-channel Utterances. 

Nigel Ward. 

4th International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (ICSLP-96).

Abstract: Back-channel feedback is required in order to build spoken dialog
systems that are responsive.  This paper reports a model of
back-channel feedback in Japanese dialog.  It turns out that a low
pitch region is a good clue that the speaker is ready for back-channel
feedback.  A rule based on this fact matches corpus data on
respondents' production of back-channel feedback.  A system based on
this rule meets the expectations of live speakers, sometimes well
enough to fool them into thinking they are conversing with a human.

This paper has been superseded by

Prosodic Features which Cue Back-channel Responses in English and Japanese.
Nigel Ward and Wataru Tsukahara. Journal of Pragmatics, 23, pp 1177--1207, 2000.

Nigel Ward's Publications