Prosodic constructions are recurring temporal patterns of prosodic activity that express specific meanings and functions. These typically involve not only pitch contours but also energy, rate, timing and articulation properties, and may involve synchronized contributions by two participants.
Session 1: Compositional and Constructional Aspects of Prosody
Larger Prosodic Constructions in Dialogue. Nancy Hedberg
Discussant: Oliver Niebuhr
Session 2: Prosodic Constructions and Turn-Taking
Some notes on prosody, processing, and turn-taking. Jan De Ruiter
Discussant: Richard Ogden
Session 3: Prosodic Constructions and Action
The prosodic deletion of action boundaries in German interaction. Beatrice Szczepek Reed
Repetition, prosody and sequential organisation in French talk-in-interaction. Rasmus Persson
Interpersonal Functions of Prosodic Greeting Constructions: Evidence from Experiments with Robots. Maria Ibh Crone Aarestrup, Kerstin Fischer.
Discussant: Richard Ogden
Session 4: Prosodic Constructions and Gesture
Discussant: Oliver Niebuhr
Motivation and Scope
Appropriate prosody is critical to effective interaction. Subtle variations in pitch, loudness, rate and aspects of timing can efficiently convey turn-taking intentions, information status, confidence, and so on. Native speakers effortlessly use prosody to convey such information, but there are still significant gaps in our knowledge about the forms and functions of prosody in unscripted dialog.
In the 1970s, specific intonation contours were identified and linked to specific meanings and functions. Critically, meanings in such models are not tied to a single prosodic parameter nor to a single prosodic event in time, rather they are pattern-based. This line of work was variously criticized as insufficiently reductionist, too abstract, difficult to apply to naturally occurring talk, monolog-oriented, hard to formalize, neglectful of prosodic features other than pitch, and lacking experimental support.
More recent work has overcome many of these problems, elucidating, for example, the prosodic behaviors involved in complaining (O01), giving in (N13), inviting back-channels (W14), producing upgraded assessments (O12, W14), questioning and using questions for various purposes (H03, H04, H10, L12, CK12, S12), calling (DO13), contradicting (H03), topic transitions (CK04), summing up (P13) and turn-taking (G12). The panel will discuss these constructions and others, compare approaches and models, and situate this work within the larger enterprise of describing dialog practices.
This panel will include empirical, methodological, and theoretical contributions from diverse approaches: conversation analysis, experimental, statistical, modeling, and others. It will address the form and function of specific prosodic constructions; multi-modal investigations; work on the nature, utility, and limitations of construction-based approaches to dialog prosody; and work on how the realizations of prosodic constructions vary, for example, with other factors affecting prosodic form, with temporal and cognitive limitations that constrain speakers, with individual speakers, and with multiple simultaneous goals, whether coherent or misaligned.
CK04: Couper-Kuhlen, Elizabeth. 2004. Prosody and Sequence Organization in English Conversation. in Sound Patterns in Interaction, Couper-Kuhlen and Ford, eds., Benjamins, pp 335-376.
CK12: Couper-Kuhlen, Elizabeth. 2012. Some Truths and Untruths about Final Intonation in Conversational Questions. in Questions: Formal, Functional, and Interactional Perspectives. Jan P. de Ruiter, ed. Cambridge pp 123-145
DO13: Day-O'Connell, Jeremy. 2013. Speech, Song, and the Minor Third: An Acoustic Study of the Stylized Interjection. Music Perception, 30, pp 441--462. (see also the video on this prosodic construction)
G12: Gorisch, J., B. Wells, and G. J. Brown. 2012. Pitch Contour Matching and Interactional Alignment across Turns: An Acoustic Investigation. Language and Speech 55, pp 57-76.
H03: Hedberg, Nancy, Sosa, Juan M., Pitch Contours in Negative Sentences. 15th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, 2003.
H04: Hedberg, Nancy, Sosa, Juan M. and Fadden, Lorna. Meanings and configurations of questions in English. Speech Prosody 2004.
H10: Hedberg, Nancy, Juan M. Sosa, Emrah Gorgulu and Morgan Mameni. 2010. The Prosody and Meaning of Wh-Questions in American English. Speech Prosody.
L12: Lai, Catherine. Response Types and the Prosody of Declaratives. Speech Prosody 2012.
N13: Niebuhr, Oliver. 2013. Resistance is futile: The intonation between continuation rise and calling contour in German. Interspeech, pp 132-136.
O01: Ogden, Richard. 2001. Turn Transition, Creak and Glottal Stop in Finnish Talk-in-Interaction. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 31.
O06: Ogden, Richard. 2006. Phonetics and Social Action in Agreements and Disagreements. Journal of Pragmatics 38: 1752-1775.
O10: Ogden, Richard (2010). Prosodic constructions in making complaints. In Dagmar Barth-Weingarten, Elisabeth Reber and Margret Selting (Eds.). Prosody in interaction. Amsterdam, Benjamins, 81-103.
O12: Ogden, Richard. 2012. Prosodies in Conversation. in Prosodies: Context, Function and Communication, edited by Oliver Niebuhr, 201-208. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
P13: Persson, Rasmus. 2013. Intonation and Sequential Organization: Formulations in French Talk-in-interaction. Journal of Pragmatics, 57, pp 19-38.
S12: Strömbergsson, Sofia, Jens Edlund and David House. 2012. Prosodic measurements and question types in the Spontal corpus of Swedish dialogues. Interspeech 2012, pp. 839-842.
SR11: Szczepek Reed, Beatrice. 2011. Beyond the Particular: Prosody and the Coordination of Actions. Language and Speech, 11, pp 13-34.
W14: Ward, Nigel G. 2014. Automatic Discovery of Simply-Composable Prosodic Elements. Speech Prosody 2014, pp 915-919.