Background: On this day, in 1716, the famous scientist Gottfried Leibniz died. With Isaac Newton, he was one of the founders of calculus. To computer scientists around the world, he is most known for his research on binary system -- which is now the basis of all computers -- and for his strong belief that all the knowledge can be described in terms of 0s and 1s.
1. A local grocery store has a discount on 12-can packages of diet coke: if you buy one or two, you pay $4.50 each, but if you buy at least three, the price per package drops to $3.50. So, if you buy two packages, you pay 2 x $4.50 = $9.00, but if you buy four, you pay 4 x $3.50 = $14.00. Define a Java method cokes(int n) that, given a number of packages, returns the amount you need to pay. In the main program, apply this method to compute the price of three packages (i.e., take n = 3).
2. In the history of science, Leibniz is known for a prolonged argument with Newton about who was the first to discover calculus. Let us design a program that would help in resolving such disputes. Let us assume that, for some invention, we have an array invention that stores the years in which different people discovered this idea:
3-4. The names of the researchers who contributed to development of binary systems are stored, in alphabetic order, in an array names.
public static int binarySearch(String[] a, String elem){ boolean found = false; int lower = 0; int upper = a.length - 1; int mid = 0; while(!found && lower <= upper){ mid = (lower + upper) / 2; if(a[mid].equals(elem)){ found = true; } else if (a[mid].compareTo(elem) > 0}{ upper = mid - 1; } else{ lower = mid + 1; } } if(found){ return mid; else{ return -1; } }Here, a[mid].compareTo(elem) > 0 means that the string a[mid] follows the desired string elem in the alphabetic order.
5. Design a class Pioneers describing computer pioneers, each element of which contains three fields: the pioneer's name, his or her birth year, and the string describing this person's contribution to computing. Do not forget to add a constructor method and accessor ("get") and modifier ("set") methods. In the main program, create a new object with your own name.
6. A professor grades the test and places the grades into a computer. Write a program that would help. This program should: